Tactical Advice

A Delicate Balancing Act

High-availability storage success depends on the ability to juggle emergency management within a realistic budget.
This story appears in the December 2009 issue of BizTech Magazine.
Credit: Steve Nagy/Jupiter Images

There’s no such thing as a data recession, nor is there any trend in sight indicating that data and associated IT resources will need to be less available in the future. Quite the contrary: As more data are generated and stored for longer periods of time, they will need to be more available and accessible, not less.

The design of a high-availability data storage infrastructure can be as varied as the environments and applications that it supports.

There are several techniques, technologies and best practices that can be aligned to diverse needs and budgets to counter threat risks and meet a business’s high-availability requirements. But six essential steps will help deliver HA for storage environments:

  • Develop strategies to address issues, threats and mission-objective requirements.
  • Establish a plan that includes applicable technologies, techniques and ongoing activities.
  • Implement a plan that includes technology deployment, configuration and day-to-day support.
  • Document and integrate with change control and business-continuity processes.
  • Measure and rely on recurring testing to validate the plan and the technologies.
  • Use problem determination, isolation, resolution and post-mortems to avoid future issues.

A basic tenet of high availability for storage (which applies as well to networks and servers) is fault isolation and fault containment — that is, eliminate single points of failure (SPOFs) and configure systems so that (if the SPOFs cannot be eliminated) any resulting fault or error condition will be contained to prevent a rolling disaster. For example, you could configure a pair of networking or storage adapters to have separate paths to a shared storage system; in the event of a failure, you would have access to the storage on the surviving adapter.

Keep in mind that HA is a balancing act between the availability needed to protect against the most likely scenarios (or scenarios that would have the most dire impact) and your budget.

 

Availability
Nines
Annual Downtime
99%
Zero
3.65 days
99.9%
One
8.77 hours
99.99%
Two
52.6 minutes
99.999%
Three
5.26 minutes
99.9999%
Four
31.56 seconds
99.99999%
Five
3.16 seconds
99.999999%
Six
1/2 second
Availablity expressed in nines

The perception is that components that have more “nines of availability” will enable HA. More nines of availability is good if you can afford it, but more important is how well the components work together. Overall availability is the sum of all of the pieces working together.

Measuring Availability

Availability is often discussed in terms of five nines, six nines or higher. It is important to understand that availability is the sum of all components and their configuration. The amount of downtime per year is calculated as a percentage: (100 – N)/100, in which N is the desired number of nines of availability. Availability is the sum of all components combined with design for fault isolation and containment. How much availability you need and can afford will be a function of your environment, application and requirements, and objectives.

The reality is that applications can be looked at from the standpoint of a specific layer or resource, or from end to end, which is what a user of IT services sees.

Anticipating and Preparing for Failure

Availability is only as good as the weakest link. In the case of a data center, that weakest link could be the applications, software, servers, storage, network, facilities and processes or best practices. Virtual data centers rely on physical resources to function; a good design can help eliminate unplanned outages to compensate for individual component failure. A good design removes complexity while providing scalability, stability, ease of management and maintenance, as well as fault containment and isolation.

As part of the configuration, costs could be saved by using a single switch, but even with five or six nines of availability, that switch and its firmware or software still present a single point of failure. You should therefore configure a pair of switches, each on its own network, to avoid device failure, software or configuration errors or network disruptions.

There is a tendency to try to reduce costs by replacing multiple smaller devices with a single, larger higher-availability
device — for instance, using a large switch in place of two separate switches. In that scenario, even with a manufacturer that boasts support for more nines than the competition, the physical frame itself might have a common SPOF — for example, a backplane that creates the potential for multiple component failures.

The bottom line: If something can fail, it will; it’s just a matter of time. HA is about mitigating risk while balancing the PACE — performance, availability, capacity and economics — of your business requirements.

Any technology (hardware, software, network or service) can fail at some point, because of the technology itself, its configuration or other error, or from acts of nature or man. Most manufacturers will claim that their products have no single points of failure, and thus will not fail. But they also typically describe how to implement fault isolation and other capabilities so that if and when their products fail, they do so gracefully and predictably.

Look for a storage system that is resilient, yet scales with stability and flexibility — meaning that as performance increases, availability does not suffer, or as availability increases, performance and capacity do not suffer. Likewise, combine individual component availability with sound configuration best practices, keeping in mind that even highly available components can break down because of technical or human error. In the end, it’s how you configure components that reduces the impact of a failure and maintains HA.

 

Greg Schulz, author of several books on storage, is founder of the StorageIO Group, an IT industry analyst consultancy whose blog can be found at www.storageioblog.com and at www.twitter.com/storageio.
Sign up for our e-newsletter

About the Author

Greg Schulz

Greg Schulz, author of several books on storage, is founder of the StorageIO Group, an IT industry analyst consultancy whose blog can be found at storageioblog.com and at twitter.com/storageio.

Security

Why Cloud Security Is More E... |
Cloud protection services enable companies to keep up with security threats while...
Securing the Internet of Thi... |
As excitement around the connected-device future grows, technology vendors seek ways to...
Tools to Maintain Mobile Sec... |
Far-flung devices pose serious challenges, but a variety of technologies can help protect...

Storage

The New Backup Utility Proce... |
Just getting used to the Windows 8 workflow? Prepare for a change.
How to Perform Traditional W... |
With previous versions going unused, Microsoft radically reimagined the backup utility in...
5 Easy Ways to Build a Bette... |
While large enterprises have the resources of an entire IT department behind them, these...

Infrastructure Optimization

Why Cloud Security Is More E... |
Cloud protection services enable companies to keep up with security threats while...
Ensure Uptime Is in Your Dat... |
Power and cooling solutions support disaster recovery and create cost savings and...
The Value of Converged Infra... |
Improvements in security, management and efficiency are just a few of the benefits CI can...

Networking

Securing the Internet of Thi... |
As excitement around the connected-device future grows, technology vendors seek ways to...
How to Maximize WAN Bandwidt... |
Understand six common problems that plague wide area networks — and how to address them.
Linksys Makes a Comeback in... |
The networking vendor introduced several new Smart Switch products at Interop this week.

Mobile & Wireless

Now that Office for iPad Is... |
After waiting awhile for Microsoft’s productivity suite to arrive, professionals who use...
Visualization Can Help Busin... |
Companies need to put their data in formats that make it consumable anytime, anywhere.
Linksys Makes a Comeback in... |
The networking vendor introduced several new Smart Switch products at Interop this week.

Hardware & Software

Visualization Can Help Busin... |
Companies need to put their data in formats that make it consumable anytime, anywhere.
The Tools That Power Busines... |
Ever-evolving analytic software can greatly improve financial institutions’ decision-...
XP-iration Date: Today Is th... |
It’s officially lights out for Windows XP as an operating system. Here’s how the world is...